|EASTERN REDBUD (Cercis canadensis)|
Height: 20'-30', Spread: 25'-30'. Small tree with rounded crown, pink to purplish flowers in
April. Likes moist, well drained soils. Full sun to light shade. Good as specimen tree or in shrub
border. Limited wildlife value.
WHITE FRINGETREE (Chionanthus virginicus)
Height: 12'-20', Spread: same. Open habit, often wider than high. Prefers moist, fertile soils and
full sun. Excellent specimen tree or in groups, borders or near large buildings. Limited wildlife
|FLOWERING DOGWOOD (Cornus florida)|
Height: 20', Spread: 15'-20'. Small tree with flat topped crown. Place in well drained soil. Full
sun to partial shade. Has character in all four seasons. Excellent as specimen tree or used on the
corner of a house or in a woodland group setting. Fruit is an important food source for songbirds
including evening grosbeak, cardinals, robins and cedar waxwings.
|WASHINGTON HAWTHORN (Crataegus phaenopyrum)|
Height: 25'-30', Spread: 20'-25'. Broadly rounded to oval, dense, thorny tree. Plant in well
drained soil in full sun. Excellent specimen tree or for borders and hedges. Should not be used in
high traffic areas. Dense thorns make excellent nesting sites for songbirds. Fruit is used by
grouse, cedar waxwings and sparrows.
COMMON WITCHHAZEL (Hamamelis virginiana)
Height: 20-30', Spread: 20'-25'. Small tree or multistemmed shrub with yellow flowers in winter.
Prefers moist soils in full sun or partial shade. Excellent for foundations, hedges, mass plantings
and as an accent plant. Limited wildlife value.
|AMERICAN HOLLY (Ilex opaca)|
Height: 15'-30', Spread: 18'-25'. Dense, pyramidal in youth, opening up with age. Plant in moist,
well drained soil. Full sun or partial shade. Use one male for every three females. Use as
specimen plant or in groupings. Many cultivars. Used extensively by many songbirds including
thrushes, mockingbirds, catbirds, bluebirds and thrashers. Foliage provides cover for songbirds
|RED MAPLE (Acer rubrum)|
Height: 40'-60', Spread: same. Habit is pyramidal in youth and rounded with age. Tolerant of
moist soils, but prefers slightly acid, moist conditions. Naturally occurs in wet areas. Excellent
tree as specimen for lawn and park settings. Excellent fall color. Buds, flowers and leaves
provide food for many birds and mammals. Chipmunks and squirrels eat seeds and some
songbirds use stalks for nest building.
SILVER MAPLE (Acer saccharinum)
Height: 50'-70', Spread: 40'-50'. Has strong spreading branches which form a rounded crown.
Tolerant of many soil types. One of the best trees for poor soils and wet conditions. Use of this
tree should be limited to areas free of buildings and heavy human use as it is prone to internal
decay and subsequent loss of branches. Provides fast shade. See Red Maple for wildlife users.
RIVER BIRCH (Betula nigra)
Height: 40'-70', Spread: 40'-60'. Pyramidal in youth and rounded with age. Often grown
multistemmed. Best adapted to moist soils. Used in areas that are alternately wet and dry.
Handsome tree used as specimen in parks and estates. Catkins are used by redpolls and pine
siskins. Foliage is used by browsers.
|SHAGBARK HICKORY (Carya ovata)|
Height: 60'-80'+, Spread: 40'-60'. Straight trunk with an oblong crown. Bark breaks up in thin
plates. Difficult to transplant, start as seedling. Should not be used in landscaped areas because
its exfoliating bark and nuts make it a "dirty" tree. Best reserved for woodland border. Leaves
are used by browsers. Nuts are also consumed by deer, turkey, foxes, wood ducks, and squirrels.
|COMMON HACKBERRY (Celtis occidentalis)|
Height: 40'-60', Spread same. In youth weakly pyramidal; in old age the crown is a broad top of
ascending, arching branches. Medium to fast growth. Prefers rich, moist soils, but grows in dry,
heavy or sandy, rocky soils; withstands acid or alkaline conditions; moderately wet or very dry
areas; tolerates wind; full sun; withstands dirt and grime of cities. Fruit is fleshy, orange to dark
purple, ripening in September to October. Leaves are yellow to yellow-green in fall. Good tree
for park or large area use. Useful tree for adverse growing conditions. Fruit is popular with
winter birds, especially the cedar waxwing, mockingbird, and robin.
|AMERICAN BEECH (Fagus grandifolia)|
Height: 50'-70'+, Spread: same. Often has short trunk with wide spreading crown. Likes moist,
well drained soils. Does best in full sun, but tolerates shade. Should be restricted to large area
use for parks and estates. Beechnuts are eaten by birds and mammals and are important food for
chipmunks and squirrels.
WHITE ASH (Fraxinus americana)
Height: 50'-80', Spread: same. Pyramidal in youth and later developing an open rounded crown.
Grows best on deep, well drained soils and full sun. Used often as a lawn tree in parks and golf
courses. Moderate importance to wildlife. Seeds eaten by wood duck, finches, and cardinals.
GREEN ASH (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
Height: 50'-60', Spread: 25'-30'. Pyramidal in youth, developing upright, spreading habit at
maturity. Grows quickly in full sun and in a wide range of soils conditions. Naturally found on
moist bottomlands. See White Ash for wildlife users.
COMMON HONEYLOCUST (Gleditsia triacanthos)
height: 30'-70', Spread: same. Usually has short trunk with open, oval crown. Fast grower.
Withstands a wide range of conditions but prefers rich, moist bottomlands. Excellent lawn tree
under filtered shade. Limited wildlife value.
|BLACK WALNUT (Juglans nigra)|
Height: 50'-75', Spread: same. Well formed trunk with oval crown. Prefers rich, moist soils.
Often found on bottomlands. Difficult to transplant. Should be started as seedling. Produces
toxins which are poisonous to many plants giving it an advantage in open field situations but
creating problems for gardeners. Nuts are eaten by woodpeckers, foxes, and squirrels.
EASTERN RED CEDAR (Juniperus virginiana)
Height: 40'-50', Spread: 8'-20'. Densely pyramidal when young and slightly pendulous in old age.
Medium rate of growth. Tolerant of adverse conditions. Prefers deep, moist soils. Will tolerate
shade only in youth. Handsome reddish brown bark. Produces small cones. Useful for
windbreaks, shelter belts, hedges and topiary work. Twigs and foliage are eaten by browsers.
Seeds are eaten most extensively by cedar waxwings. Evergreen foliage provides nesting and
roosting cover for sparrows, robins, mockingbirds, juncos, and warblers.
|AMERICAN SWEETGUM (Liquidambar styraciflua)|
Height: 60'-75'+, Spread: 2/3 height. Pyramidal in youth, rounded crown at maturity. Likes deep,
moist, acid soils. Occurs naturally on bottomlands. Excellent for lawn or park area. Gumballs
can be a problem in lawn settings. Goldfinches and purple finches eat winged seeds.
TULIP POPLAR (Liriodendron tulipifera)
Height: 70'-90', Spread: 30'-50'. Long, straight trunk with a narrow canopy. Fast grower. Plant
in full sun and a well drained loam. Use in large areas. Wood somewhat weak. Moderate
wildlife importance. The purple finch and cardinal are principal users.
BLACK GUM (Nyssa sylvatica)
Height: 30'-50', Spread: 20'-30'. Pyramidal in youth and irregularly crowned at maturity. Prefers
moist, well drained, acid soils. Full sun or semi-shade. Deep taproot. Beautiful tree when used
as a specimen. Fruit is relished by many songbirds. Users include wood ducks, robins,
woodpeckers, thrashers, flickers, and mockingbirds.
EASTERN WHITE PINE (Pinus strobus)
Height: 50'-80'+, Spread: 20'-40'. Pyramidal in youth, crown at maturity has several horizontal
and ascending branches. Fast grower. Grows best on fertile, well-drained soils, but is very
adaptable. A very handsome and ornamental specimen, valuable for lawns, parks, and estates.
Provides valuable cover and nesting sites for songbirds and mammals. Needles are used as
nesting material. Seeds are eaten by quail, chickadees, grosbeaks, nuthatches and woodpeckers.
WHITE OAK (Quercus alba)
Height: 100', Spread; 50'-80'. Pyramidal in youth, becoming broad and rounded with wide
spreading branches. Transplant as small tree. Prefers moist, well drained soils. Difficult to obtain
from nurseries. Sometimes available as seedling. Worthwhile tree for large areas. Oasis, in
general, are of major importance to wildlife. Acorns are at the top of the food preference list for
wood ducks, pheasants, grackles, jays, nuthatches, thrushes, woodpeckers, rabbits, foxes,
squirrels and deer.
PIN OAK (Quercus palustris)
Height: 60'-70', Spread: 25'-40'. Strongly pyramidal with ascending branches. One of the faster
growing oaks. Full sun. Tolerates wet soils but is adaptable to many soils types. Most widely
used oak for landscaping. Used on lawns, parks, golf courses and around commercial buildings.
See white oak for wildlife uses.
RED OAK (Quercus rubra)
Height: 60'-75', Spread: 40'-50'. Often larger in the wild. Habit is round-topped and symmetrical.
Full sun. Prefers loamy, well drained soils. Fast growing tree for lawns, parks and estates. See
white oak for wildlife uses.
WILLOW OAK (Quercus phellos)
Height: 50'-100', Spread 30'-70'. Fast growing oak with willow-like foliage. Good shade tree.
Full sun or semi-shade. Easily grown in wet soils. See white oak for wildlife uses.
EASTERN HEMLOCK (Tsuga canadensis)
Height: 40'-70', Spread: 25'-35'. Pyramidal in youth, becoming more pendulous with age. Likes
moist, well-drained soils. Plant in sheltered area. Tolerates shade. Relatively fast growing.
Excellent for screens, hedges, accent plant and foundation plantings. Provides excellent cover for
deer and songbirds. Nesting site for several warblers. Seeds are eaten by juncos, chickadees, and